The skin microbiome has been described in over 1000 peer reviewed scientific publications (PubMed Search on keywords ‘Skin’ AND ‘Microbiome’, accessed 13th July 2018). Furthermore, research on ‘Lactobacillus’ strains in relation to the ‘skin’ has led to the publication of more than 300 papers.

YUN’s products were developed based on the following scientific research*, divided in three main categories:

  • Skin microbiome and health
  • Lactobacillus in relation to skin health
  • Role of skin bacteria in acne vulgaris

*this list is only a selection and is not intended to be exhaustive

Skin microbiome and health

Bouslimani, A. et al., 2015. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 112(17).

Byrd, A.L., Belkaid, Y. & Segre, J.A., 2018. The human skin microbiome. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 16(3), pp.143–155.

Cogen, A.L., Nizet, V. & Gallo, R.L., 2008. Skin microbiota: a source of disease or defence? British Journal of Dermatology, 158(3), pp.442–455.

Egert, M. & Simmering, R., 2016. The Microbiota of the Human Skin. In Springer, Cham, pp. 61–81.

Grice, E.A. & Segre, J.A., 2011. The skin microbiome. Nature reviews. Microbiology, 9(4), pp.244–53.

Grice, E.A. et al., 2009. Topographical and temporal diversity of the human skin microbiome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5931), pp.1190–2.

Human Microbiome Project Consortium, T., 2012. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature, 486.

Oh, J. et al., 2016. Temporal Stability of the Human Skin Microbiome. Cell, 165, pp.854–866.

Rook, G.A.W., 2012. Hygiene Hypothesis and Autoimmune Diseases. Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, 42(1), pp.5–15.

Yee, A.L. et al., 2016. MICROBIOME. Is triclosan harming your microbiome? Science (New York, N.Y.), 353(6297), pp.348–9.

Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M. et al., 2013. Microbiome and skin diseases. Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 13(5), pp.514–520.


Publications microbiome


Lactobacillus in relation to skin health

Fabbrocini, G. et al., 2016. Supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1 normalises skin expression of genes implicated in insulin signalling and improves adult acne. Beneficial Microbes, 7(5), pp.625–630.

Kumar, S., Mahajan, B.B. & Kamra, N., 2014. Future perspective of probiotics in dermatology: an old wine in new bottle. Dermatology online journal, 20(9).

Lew, L.-C. & Liong, M.-T., 2013. Bioactives from probiotics for dermal health: functions and benefits. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 114(5), pp.1241–1253.

Mohammedsaeed, W. et al., 2014. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG inhibits the toxic effects of Staphylococcus aureus on epidermal keratinocytes. Applied and environmental microbiology, 80(18), pp.5773–81.

Mohammedsaeed, W. et al., 2015. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Lysate Increases Re-Epithelialization of Keratinocyte Scratch Assays by Promoting Migration. Scientific reports, 5, p.16147.

Rosenthal, M. et al., 2011. Skin microbiota: microbial community structure and its potential association with health and disease. Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 11(5), pp.839–48.

Sikorska, H. & Smoragiewicz, W., 2013. Role of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 42(6), pp.475–81.

Sultana, R., McBain, A.J. & O’Neill, C.A., 2013. Strain-dependent augmentation of tight-junction barrier function in human primary epidermal keratinocytes by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium lysates. Applied and environmental microbiology, 79(16), pp.4887–94.

Role of skin bacteria in acne vulgaris

Barnard, E. et al., 2016. The balance of metagenomic elements shapes the skin microbiome in acne and health. Scientific Reports, 6(1), p.39491.

Beylot, C. et al., 2014. Propionibacterium acnes: an update on its role in the pathogenesis of acne. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV, 28(3), pp.271–8.

Bowe, W.P. & Logan, A.C., 2011. Acne vulgaris , probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis – back to the future ? Gut Pathogens, 3(1), pp.1–11.

Del Rosso, J.Q. et al., 2016. Status Report from the Scientific Panel on Antibiotic Use in Dermatology of the American Acne and Rosacea Society Part 2 : Perspectives on Antibiotic Use and the Microbiome and Review of Microbiologic Effects of Selected Specific Therapeutic Agents. Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology, 9(5), pp.11–17.

Dessinioti, C. & Katsambas, A., 2017. Propionibacterium acnes and antimicrobial resistance in acne.

Fitz-Gibbon, S. et al., 2013. Propionibacterium acnes strain populations in the human skin microbiome associated with acne. The Journal of investigative dermatology, 133(9), pp.2152–60.

Numata, S. et al., 2014. Analysis of facial skin-resident microbiota in Japanese acne patients. Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland), 228(1), pp.86–92.

Ross, J.I. et al., 2003. Antibiotic-resistant acne: lessons from Europe. The British journal of dermatology, 148(3), pp.467–78.

Wang, Y. et al., 2014. Staphylococcus epidermidis in the human skin microbiome mediates fermentation to inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes: implications of probiotics in acne vulgaris. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 98(1), pp.411–24.


YUN’s scientific background and publications from our scientific team and advisors – top 5 selection

Sanders, M.E. et al., 2018. Shared mechanisms among probiotic taxa: implications for general probiotic claims.

Lebeer, S., Vanderleyden, J. & De Keersmaecker, S.C.J., 2010. Host interactions of probiotic bacterial surface molecules: comparison with commensals and pathogens. Nature reviews. Microbiology, 8(3), pp.171–84.

Lebeer, S., Vanderleyden, J. & De Keersmaecker, S.C.J., 2008. Genes and Molecules of Lactobacilli Supporting Probiotic Action. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 72(4), pp.728–764.

Kankainen, M. et al., 2009. Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106(40), pp.17193–17198.

Lebeer, S., Claes, I.J.J. & Vanderleyden, J., 2012. Anti-inflammatory potential of probiotics: Lipoteichoic acid makes a difference. Trends in Microbology, 20(1).

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